The foundation shall be capable of transmitting the design base shear and the overturning forces from the structure into the supporting soil. Purpose The purpose of this calculation sheet is to solve for design parameters of a footing, which will result in easier design of footing. Taking spread foundation as an example, the following ULS requirements are. (mm) B width of footing, ft (m) d distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement, in. Prandtl, has studied the problem of failure of an…. The purpose of the foundation bracket is to transfer the load from the foundation element to. "Design of Concrete Foundation Piers" - by Frank Randall Portland Cement Association (PCA) - Skokie, IL, May 1968 b. The wall was checked for sliding and overturning. Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 3 Pipe poles are made from large diameter pipe sections and joined by external or internal flange connections as shown in Fig. If cumulative overturning is not considered, the design may result in forces several times higher than the capacity of the lower wall, anchor bolts and foundation anchorage. The moment at the base of the center column was chosen as the variable to be analyzed, since it is the highest overturning moment found in the model and, thus, can provide a good understating of the comparisons between the different types of analyses performed on the proposed forty-story steel frame structure. overturning moment is (vi)king Aerodynamic Forces Overturning Moment Vertical Load moment and power vs. The Design of Profiles 7 E. This work aims towards finding new and reusable cost-effective onshore foundation solutions. load shall not exceed 2/3 of the resisting moment due to dead load only , unless the structure is anchored to resist the excess overturning moment ( Minimum factor of safety required is 1. General Deep Foundation Design Flow Chart for Drilled. The eccentrically loaded pile caps required custom designed tie beams to transfer the overturning moment, along with custom designed shear framing to distribute the large column shear loads at the edge of the pile cap. The principal stress trajectories in Fig. Bearing Capacity – A minimum factor of safety of 1. Overturning sliding, and uplift stability checks are made when applicable, and resulting gross soil bearing pressures at the four (4) corners of the footing are calculated. Employing a common foundation design across the project aids in the economic viability. Keyword-suggest-tool. The dimensions of the cantilever wall are shown in Figure 15. if so you may: 1. Chai ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) moment or as a result of the lack of attention to details of the curtailment of reinforcement. This type of beam is called a strap beam. Therefore, length of footing (L) = Width of footing (B) Therefore area of footing required = = 1100/300 = 3. The foundation only supports a 100ft high light pole, but the wind gave it a huge overturning moment (300k-ft I think), plus the foundation was about 10 feet away from a 100ft high MSE wall with really expensive operations equipment below (they would lose a couple million each day if it was out of order). The spreadsheet checks for eccentricity by determining whether it is a large eccentricity case. 12 states that retaining walls shall include lateral pressures due to earthquake motions in Seismic Design Categories D through F. ) Determination of Allowable. Using the S V , L , and l l determined in Problem 15. The best solution to prevent overturning in shear walls with un-reinforced concrete foundations is to provide additional weight to anchor the hold-downs. Ductile Moment Resisting Frames Instructor: John Pao No. 2 illustrates the analysis and design of deep foundations for a building similar to the one. Figure 136 shows a footing carrying characteristic vertical actions VGk (permanent) and V Qk (variable) imposed on it by the super-structure. 618k/ft > Vu → Footing is ok against one way shear. The cantilever retaining wall (“cantilever wall”) constructed of reinforced Portland-cement concrete (PCC) was the predominant. The "substructure" or "jacket" is fabricated from steel welded pipes and is pinned to the sea floor with steel piles, which are driven through piles guides on the outer members of the jacket. 6 kNm/m Total restoring moment Mrest = Mwall + Mbase + Mdead = 407. rigidity of the soil and the footing, and the depth of foundation at level of contact between footing and soil. 1 Live loads should be calculated in accordance with PIP STC01015. 14 A retaining wall with geotextile reinforcement is 6-m high. (e) Anchorage. Gravity Dam Analysis. 2, and IS 456: 2000 clause 34. Chapter 8 Foundation Design 8. Whether you are designing moment-resisting foundations with consideration of overturning and sliding or mat foundations on poor soils or deep foundations, our products will help you complete your foundation design projects in a timely manner. Rad Portland State University ©2016. For anchorage design in low seismic zone (ACI 318-08 SDC Overturning Sliding To prevent overturning the restoring moment due to the vertical load must be greater than the overturning moment, thus Under this loading condition the bearing pressure is not. The most economical design of a pile foundation, including pile material, pile dimensions, and the arrangement of the piles in a foundation, can be found by successive application of the proposed analytical procedure. In 2005, EMBARQ committed to provide advice and tools for project management, studies, and the basic design of a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system for the city of Porto Alegre. 12 states that retaining walls shall include lateral pressures due to earthquake motions in Seismic Design Categories D through F. General Introduction 2. Allows to apply axial, bending moment and/or horizontal loads. An overturning moment is quite literally the force that is attempting to overturn an object. The pressure and very high overturning moment and relatively low stabilising load the foundations loose contact with the sub-. n = nominal axial strength P. It’s free to use for estimating purposes. ” Footings may be classified as deep or shallow. Foundations 12 A. type of restoring moment acting on the core at that level. 5 for a factor of safety. Geological conditions of the soil under consideration 5. AUTHOR(S) 8. The design of different types of foundations is explained and illustrated with step-by-step examples. 5 against lateral sliding and overturning, but “where earthquake loads are. 7 meter height with 146 mm diameter and…. 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC), Section 1806. Steel Sheet Piling Design Manual Notice “The information, including technical and engineering data, figures, tables, designs, drawings, details, suggested procedures, and suggested specifications, presented in this publication are for general information only. For onshore wind turbine tower, there are basically 5 common types of wind tower foundations: the shallow mat extension, the ribbed beam basement, the underneath piled foundation, the uplift. General Principles Governing the Design of Masonry Dams 5 D. Design flexural steel required. Therefore, geotechnical engineers must conduct appropriate laboratory and field testing that provides dynamic soil properties, in addition to static properties commonly provided for traditional structural design. This is not a tower I have been involved in the design of and know little other than it is 60 feet tall, 3 2 1/2" dia pipe legs, and angle braces. 1 - Shaft Overturning and Torsion Analysis June 2011 Page 1 Brom's Overturning & Torsion Loading Analysis of Short Single Shaft Foundations This design guide illustrates the Department's recommended procedures for analyzing the depth. abacuslighting. The overturning moment of an object is the moment of energy capable of upsetting the object; that is, the point where it has been subjected to enough disturbance that it ceases to be stable, it overturns, capsizes, collapses, topples or otherwise incurs an unwanted change in its circumstances, possibly resulting in. : Where: is the design racking load on building (sum of wind force on windward and leeward walls). 6(D)(H -1)(G)/Sd= td =td / tt = 2. These are safety factors to make sure the footing is of sufficient size and design to resist all loads. Common examples include pad, strip or raft foundations. Vertical component of active force P _, t(if exist). The lower beam in the CFS Picture Frame™ bears on wood floor systems and distributes overturning compression forces to limit crushing and reduce deflection, all in a wall dimension that is narrower and more-effective than multiple wood posts. Stability against Overturning: The wall must be safe against overturning. Note that the crane base reactions differ when the crane legs are embedded in the foundations or when using a ballast weight. Once the pressure distribution is known, the bending moment and shear force can be determined and the footing can be designed to safely resist these forces. The passive earth pressure is calculated for each of the 2 horizontal directions. Design of Pad Footing Cracking & Detailing Requirements • All reinforcements should extend the full length of the footing • If >1. The "substructure" or "jacket" is fabricated from steel welded pipes and is pinned to the sea floor with steel piles, which are driven through piles guides on the outer members of the jacket. BC - diameter of bolt circle. Results are not to be used without the written certification…. Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide December 2008 Page 4 of 31 Process Industry Practices 4. Assume self weight of footing =0. 1 completes the analysis and design of shallow foundations for two of the alternative framing arrangements considered for the building featured in Example 6. When specifying stacked shearwall applications, it's important to consider cumulative overturning. 500 m the factored allow soil pressure = 154. Brom's Overturning & Torsion Capacity of Short Single Shaft Aug. Example 1 - Calculating the factor of safety against overturning and. Performance-Based Design Factors for Pile Foundations October 2014 6. Sliding and Overturning checks for Mat foundation are available since build 8. The design and construction sequence of temporary lateral supports used. The distance from the ground surface to the. Lets say that each child pushin. Overturning Moment, Mo= M +RHHF. structure from overturning forces. An existing three-story, single-baysteel moment. It is noted that a. 2 Scope 6 1. ” Footings may be classified as deep or shallow. Weight of each element of retaining. Basics of Retaining Wall Design 10 Editionth A Design Guide for Earth Retaining Structures Contents at a glance: 1. It is commonly required in the construction of hill roads, masonry dams, abutments and wings walls of bridges and so on. Checking the Use Pier Foundation checkbox (on the sub-tabs under the Footing tab) will replace the Key Design & Sliding Options sub-tab with the Pier Design sub-tab as shown below: This allows you to use drilled cast-in-place concrete piers spaced in a single row along the length of the wall. Drainage provided instead of water pressure d1/3 d1/2. The cantilever retaining wall (“cantilever wall”) constructed of reinforced Portland-cement concrete (PCC) was the predominant. Buy New Learn more about this copy. 99 kN*m Answer DSI solution The overturning moment at A i. For sliding, the resistance force was calculated to be approximately 5,000 lb/ft with a driving force of 3,500 lb/ft. Download file - Download other useful tools! Follow our official Facebook page (@civilengineeringbible) and Twitter page (@CivilEngBible) and do not miss the best civil engineering tools and articles!. When the application requires existing foundation restoration or stabilization, foundation brackets are available that attach between the Torque Anchor™ and the foundation beam, footing or slab. Similarly, for stability in overturning, the resisting moment at the base of the footing due to passive resistance is added to the resisting moment due to the vertical loads, W, if you choose to include it. -- Current Specifications: 1989 ASD and 1999 LRFD. When I say rotating around the heel, I mean that the overturning moment is calculated about the leftmost point of the footing. The purpose of the footing. Design begins with the selection of trial dimensions for a typical vertical cross section through the wall. Performance-Based Design Factors for Pile Foundations October 2014 6. 4 Professional collaboration 7 1. of Fdn Due to Wt. The spreadsheet checks uplift, overturning, sliding, bearing pressures, as well as designs reinforcement for bending and shear. Lighting Foundation Selection Software. the footing. - Group ID - Length 1 1 1. Design Wind Pressure (DWP) is defined as the wind pres-. much detail, the design wind speeds are different because the basis for wind design was service-level, fastest mile wind speeds in ASCE 7-93, service-level, 3-sec - ond gust wind speeds in ASCE 7-05 and strength-level, 3-second gust wind speeds in ASCE 7-10. The calculations for bending moment, shear force, development length etc. For an entire structure with a height-to-width ratio of 0. Note that the crane base reactions differ when the crane legs are embedded in the foundations or when using a ballast weight. This moment, is calculated at the base of the tank shell with appropriate anchor fixings being supplied to secure the shell to the foundation. For monopile type of foundations, this. Types of Masonry Dams 4 C. There are two checks to consider the stability of the retaining wall. The scope of this calculation is to design a storage tank foundation with no internal pressure. Das' Seventh Edition of PRINCIPLES OF FOUNDATION ENGINEERING continues to maintain the careful balance of. A cast-in-place concrete foundation with square section of 1. Tributary Area for Flexure. of Soil Total Stabilizing Moment. The eccentrically loaded pile caps required custom designed tie beams to transfer the overturning moment, along with custom designed shear framing to distribute the large column shear loads at the edge of the pile cap. $\endgroup$ - user2817017 Nov 24 '16 at 12:27. This is done by considering the shear walls as wide columns of high moment of inertia and following the same procedure as for columns. It is used to help distribute the weight of either heavily or eccentrically loaded column. As the structure overturning moment is generally resolved into a force couple in braced frames or individual moments in footings, I read this as allowing a reduction in either the force couple or the individual moments for design, both strength and stability, of the footings. The comparative analysis between anti-overturning formula and finite element simulation were studied. structure to overturn. 109 (1) in turbulent shear flow the highest values of BF were 1. In respect of rotational stiffness the Lumped parameter model based on the elastic half space theory is used by most inves- tigators I 3,4]. One is the check for an overturning moment and the other one is the check for sliding. The compression chord may also carry gravity loads in addition to the forces associated with the overturning moment. The traditional way to solve the construction problem uses a shallow foundation with a massive concrete volume or a piled foundation to resist the extreme overturning moment. Total overturning moment Mot = Msur + Mm_a = 102. \爀屲Thi對s also raises several questions: \⠀尩 Since anchors are provided to resist the reduced overturning moment, wouldn’t the tank up\൬ift during the. 1 kips The overturning moment on the panel is M u = 6. Roof uplift forces are transferred to the foundation by direct tension through the wall framing and tension straps or wall sheathing. rigidity of the soil and the footing, and the depth of foundation at level of contact between footing and soil. ECCENTRICITY. This design involves step by step process to arrive at economical, safe and efficient foundation design using NSCP Code 2010, 6 Ed. The total overturning moment generated by the inertial force was 226 kNm, taking into account the basement filling soil. The wall was checked for sliding and overturning. philosophies on light pole foundation design. The moment at the base of the center column was chosen as the variable to be analyzed, since it is the highest overturning moment found in the model and, thus, can provide a good understating of the comparisons between the different types of analyses performed on the proposed forty-story steel frame structure. Four main steps must then be followed: 1. com Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Foundation Design 14-16 Reduction of Overturning Moment • NEHRP Recommended Provisions allow base overturning moment to be reduced by 25% at the soil-foundation interface. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. Model Studies of Dams 8 F. 8 kN/m 3 , ϕ ′ 2 = 20 ° , and c ′ 2 = 55 kN/m 2. 5 5 where M resist = average resultant soil pressure x width x location of load centroid with respect to column centroid M overturning = P x e. 2 for normal condition and 1. 0 Check for Overturning: Overturning Moment Due to External Load Due to wt. Design Considerations Large design loads necessitate large foundations Lateral load is a substantial fraction of the vertical load, therefore the overturning moment is very large There is a major cyclic component of loads Large settlement due to soft seabed deposits near sea floor. (mm) e eccentricity, in. Taking spread foundation as an example, the following ULS requirements are. inadequate design of their foundation could lead to local damage at the foundation level and even overturn. The computation is based on the calculation of the rigid body equilibrium (EQU) of the infinitely rigid foundation (both flexurally and extensionally) compared to the rotation around the sides (edges) of the base polygon on the lean concrete. Calculation of the maximum pressure under foundation metric foundation footing pressure Open calculation sheet Preview. 6 kNm/m Total restoring moment Mrest = Mwall + Mbase + Mdead = 407. DESIGN OF WIND TURBINE TOWER AND FOUNDATION SYSTEMS: OPTIMIZATION APPROACH by John Corbett Nicholson A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science degree in Civil and Environmental Engineering in the Graduate College of The University of Iowa May 2011 Thesis Supervisor: Professor Jasbir S. 75 m wide supports a vertical wall loading of 120 kN/m. • The more severe condition occurs if for some reason the full dead load is not present. from the Toe. Soil weigh on foundation = 2. The allowable soil pressure is 5000 psf. This is clearly insufficient to resist the potential overturning forces. lifted off its foundation or because the foundation pulls out of the soil. Guidelines for Classification of Foundations of Transmission Towers in Different Soils. 2 Load combinations that include live load as listed in Tables 3 and 4 of PIP STC01015 will typically not control any part of the foundation design. The steel jacket type platform on a pile foundation is by far the most common kind of offshore structure and they exist worldwide. REINFORCEMENT. 2 m embedded depth was equipped with 11 earth pressure cells. Design of Isolated Column Footing The objective of design is to determine • Area of footing • Thickness of footing. 6 reduction factor on D is intended to apply to the calculation of net overturning stresses and forces. 1 completes the analysis and design of shallow foundations for two of the alternative framing arrangements considered for the building featured in Example 6. The footing is subject to axial load and bearing (biaxial moment). 5 for a factor of safety. CONDITIONS AFFECTING DESIGN. 1 completes the analysis and design of shallow foundations for. DESIGN The primary force acting on a retaining wall is the pressure exerted by the retained material at the back of the wall and on the heel of the footing. 259 kNm Restoring Moment = 159. Rahman, Ph. If the retaining wall is overturned, it will rotate around the point "A". Since one side of the footing is limited to 5', the length of footing is. This article discusses the shear checks required by ACI 318. tnxFoundation Overview. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. The traditional way to solve the construction problem uses a shallow foundation with a massive concrete volume or a piled foundation to resist the extreme overturning moment. Design will be to the principles set out in AS 4678. The wall was checked for sliding and overturning. Example: Calculate Pole foundation size and Wind pressure on Pole for following Details. CHANCE foundations for light poles offer solutions for decorative and architectural lighting. Pad footing analysis and design (BS8110-1:1997) Job Ref. Lever Arm Length: where, M = Moment, F = Force, l = Lever Arm Length. Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide December 2008 Page 4 of 31 Process Industry Practices 4. In practice, most utilities deterministically require that loads applied to foundations be greater than the structure to prevent foundation foundation design. Overturning Moment = 45. When D/H is greater than or equal to 1. 1' Use 10’, the footing area is 50 ft. overturning moment about base of foundation, caused by F vh loads, F f overturning moment about base of foundation, caused by wind loads, blast, or similar lateral loads, F l largest overturning moment about the pressed edge or cen-troid of the base, F ! resultant resisting moment, F ! exponent used to relate plate kp to mat ks, Q. POLEFDN is a spreadsheet program written in MS-Excel for the purpose of analysis of a pole foundation assuming the use of a rigid round pier which is assumed free at the top and subjected to lateral and vertical loads. Moment was applied to the pole supported by the foundation until overturning failure. The allowable bearing pressure is the bottom of the footing. 3 ِDesign of steel storage tanks- fixed roof with and without column excel 4 Design Calculasion for fixed cone roof storage tanks Excel 5 Foundation design of storage tanks Excel 6 Seismiac base shear and overturning moment calculation for storage tanks Excel 7 Dike Design for tank farm area Excel. This type of beam is called a strap beam. Provide Length and width of footing = 2m. Torsional moment = The resulting torsional moment, is resisted by all the walls, with each wall contributing to the total moment in proportion to its (stiffness) x (lateral displacement) x (perpendicular distance to the centre of rotation), i. Continuous Footing Rectangular Footing. Weight of all soil above the heel of the retaining wall. The dead load factor for overturning is 0. Supported wall is placed in the middle or eccentrically on the footing. THE PROBLEM IS SOLVED BY AN ASSUMPTION OF THE SOIL PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION ALONG THE EMBEDDED LENGTH OF THE FOOTING RESISTING AN OVERTURNING MOMENT. Keyword-suggest-tool. Hence to overcome these overturning moments a restoring moment/stabilizing moment is required to be produced, mostly by the self-weight of footing and overburden soil over the footing. The app designs the appropriate dimensions of the. The lower beam in the CFS Picture Frame™ bears on wood floor systems and distributes overturning compression forces to limit crushing and reduce deflection, all in a wall dimension that is narrower and more-effective than multiple wood posts. $\endgroup$ – user2817017 Nov 24 '16 at 12:27. "synopsis" may belong to another edition of this title. Supported wall can be positioned centrally or eccentrically on the footing. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO. 8 kNm/m Check bearing pressure. Supported wall is placed in the middle or eccentrically on the footing. Area of footing required, A = 𝑤 𝑆𝐵𝐶 For square footing, Size of footing = 𝐴 For Rectangular footing, assume L LxB=A Provide L x B square footing, Total Area = _ _ _ _ _ m2 18. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE 7. (predominantly overturning moment, lateral load and the vertical load) due to all possible design load cases and compare with the capacity of the chosen foundation. The maximum moment occurs when the load is positioned furthest away from the mast or wall, at. The purpose of the foundation bracket is to transfer the load from the foundation element to. The foundation level is 2. Most suppliers lifted off its foundation or because the foundation pulls out of the soil. Overturning Overturning is checked at the base of the footing at the extreme edge of the toe. The basic objective in structural analysis and design is to produce a structure capable of resisting all applied loads without failure during its intended life. MODELLING OF UNCERTAINTIES. thick structural reinforced concrete shear wall is to be supported by a strip footing. As part of the design of conventional cantilever and gravity retaining walls with relatively rigid footings, overturning failure is commonly checked to determine whether the design meets the required margin of safety. The monopoles are also designed with octagonal foundations underneath. Changed “Effective Moment of Inertia for Box Girder Superstructures” to “Effective Moment of Inertia for Superstructures and Cap Beams” Added provision for “effective moment of inertia for prestressed sections” 5. The optimum point of prestress is a function of the resisting moment versus demand and factor of safety. The prestress in the anchor is calculated to cover the. 6 reduction factor on D is intended to apply to the calculation of net overturning stresses and forces. You can input forces acted onto the column (eg. Foundation design sections (spread and pile foundation, section 5 & 6) of EC7-1 offer the greatest detail. Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Foundation Design 14-28 Pile/Pier Foundations Passive resistance (see Figure 4. ST2, Paper 1188, March 1957. The factor of safety against overturning is defined as the resisting moment divided by the overturning moment, and the minimum value should be 1. The distance from the ground surface to the. Rad Portland State University ©2016. The spreadsheet checks for eccentricity by determining whether it is a large eccentricity case. Designing foundations with piles for vibrating machinery is a difficult task for the simple reason that practical design methods are not readily available or published in codes of practice (Tomlinson PDCP 1987, British Standards 1974 [1, 2]. (predominantly overturning moment, lateral load and the vertical load) due to all possible design load cases and compare with the capacity of the chosen foundation. The lower beam in the CFS Picture Frame™ bears on wood floor systems and distributes overturning compression forces to limit crushing and reduce deflection, all in a wall dimension that is narrower and more-effective than multiple wood posts. Such walls shall be designed for a safety factor of 1. Determine footing sizes. 230m Pedestal Reinforcement-. The footing self-weight and applied surcharge can have a significant impact in resisting the overturning forces. General Principles Governing the Design of Masonry Dams 5 D. Therefore take moment around point ‘A’ to find the overturning moment and restoring moment. (150 mm) for walls up to two storeys in height. The large overturning demand provided a design challenge and opportunity for post-tensioning technology. 3 Structural Design, Anchorage against overturning, uplift and sliding Structural members and systems and components and cladding in a building or structure shall be anchored to resist wind-induced overturning , uplift. Most design codes and research studies recommend use of dynamic analysis to estimate the distribution and magnitude of forces for the seismic design of both steel and reinforced concrete chimneys and towers ~SEAOC 1967;Rinne 1970;ACI 1979. Establish Minimum Diameter and Depth for Lateral Loads 11. Factor of Safety against Overturning is expressed using the formula. For wind, the analysis of overturning should also consider roof uplift forces unless a separate load path is designed to transfer those forces. Bearing pressure of. 3‐2004 Saudi design code: SBC 304‐2007 •Optimize footings for Uplift, Overturning & Sliding OVERVIEW. Worked examples presented at the Workshop “Eurocode 7: Geotechnical Design” Dublin, 13-14 June, 2013 Support to the implementation, harmonization and further development of the Eurocodes. Content rating: No votes yet. Overturning Moment = 45. DESIGN The primary force acting on a retaining wall is the pressure exerted by the retained material at the back of the wall and on the heel of the footing. footing by the Grand Any design of stacked walls should consider the area of the passive reaction wedge, which moment capacity. from the manufactured house to the foundation without failure. Learn about our no-concrete helical light pole foundation technology. - 25% (for ELF analysis) and 10% (for modal analysis) Reduction in Foundation Overturning Provisions … (Unless inverted-pendulum or cantilevered-column type structure) …are still permitted. For net overturning cases, the current version of the program assumes that the design shear and moment can be based on the total vertical load and the net eccentricity of that load. Have much thinner stem, and utilize the weight of the backfill soil to provide most of the resistance to sliding and overturning. When a project requires customization of a foundation. foundation design. Post frame buildings want to overturn; they do induce moment loads, which leads me to discourage people from using the standard bracket for this application. retaining walls). 4 Drilled Shafts A bridge abutment or pier foundation consisting of two or more drilled shafts is considered as a. , factor of safety overturning, sliding, and bearing capacity failure) of the wall. • For a moment frame, the column vertical. In respect of rotational stiffness the Lumped parameter model based on the elastic half space theory is used by most inves- tigators I 3,4]. Section Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Sheet no. The footing self-weight and applied surcharge can have a significant impact in resisting the overturning forces. Appendix C, Foundation Capacities Ta-bles, provides design capacities for foundation uplift and withdrawal, based on the foundation type chosen (wood, concrete masonry or cast-in-place concrete). Employing a common foundation design across the project aids in the economic viability. Allows to apply axial, bending moment and/or horizontal loads. Taking spread foundation as an example, the following ULS requirements are. the ultimate overturning moment using factored loads divided by the axial load, shall be limited to 3/8. Then the footing itself it is designed for sheer, moment, and other loads with factory loads as required by ACI 318 "building code requirements for structural concrete" published by the American concrete Institute. Design a rectangular combined footing to support two columns shown above. Soil weigh on foundation = 2. footing design for wind-resistant highway sign boards DRILLED SHAFT REINFORCED CONCRETE FOOTINGS FOR THE SUPPORT OF LARGE HIGHWAY SIGNBOARDS CAN BE DESIGNED TO ENABLE THEM TO RESIST MAJOR WIND LOADS. This calculator determines the footing and post size for a variety of sign, soil, & wind configurations. POLEFDN is a spreadsheet program written in MS-Excel for the purpose of analysis of a pole foundation assuming the use of a rigid round pier which is assumed free at the top and subjected to lateral and vertical loads. POLEFDN is a spreadsheet program written in MS-Excel for the purpose of analysis of a pole foundation assuming the use of a rigid round pier which is assumed free (unrestrained) at the top and subjected to lateral and vertical loads. Note that the program is set up to look for overturning and resisting forces individually. A side bearing block foundation is used to resist overturning moments and lateral forces. 10 Foundations The design of the concrete foundation is project and location specific and therefore does not form part of the tank supply for this specification. The resultant force \F R1" is obtained through the volume of pressure of the area formed by the axis a0-a0 and the corners 1 and 2 of the footing, it is presented [15-17]:. ) The maximum factored moment is less than the maximum resistance moment. However, because the default groups that Robot uses is based on level, it groups that for example have one footing out of a group of 20 that has an overturning moment 10 times that of all the rest which means the outlier footing dictates the design of all the rest which from a structural efficiency perspective is nonsense. Overturning is considered in design such that the resisting moment from the soil pressure (equivalent force at load centroid) is greater than the overturning moment, M, by a factor of safety of at least 1. "Resistance to Overturning of Single, Short Piles" - by Eli Czerniak ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, Vol. 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC), Section 1806. Determine footing sizes. Foundation O. The design of foundations. inadequate design of their foundation could lead to local damage at the foundation level and even overturn. The pressure and very high overturning moment and relatively low stabilising load the foundations loose contact with the sub-. In order to provide a high-confidence against a possible foundation shear failure, vertical shear reinforcing is added in the 10 ft thick pile cap. Toe moments are positive if they cause tension in the bottom of the footing. 6(D)(H-1)/(St) td = Miniumum shell thickness, in inches D = Normal tank diameter , in feet H = depth of tank , in feet G = design Specific gravity of. Design begins with the selection of trial dimensions for a typical vertical cross section through the wall. "Resistance to Overturning of Single, Short Piles" - by Eli Czerniak ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, Vol. Engineers and researchers involved in the design of offshore wind farm foundation, Contracts engineers, (overturning mudline moment, lateral and vertical loads. The "substructure" or "jacket" is fabricated from steel welded pipes and is pinned to the sea floor with steel piles, which are driven through piles guides on the outer members of the jacket. The lower beam in the CFS Picture Frame™ bears on wood floor systems and distributes overturning compression forces to limit crushing and reduce deflection, all in a wall dimension that is narrower and more-effective than multiple wood posts. are made based on provision in IS code. n = nominal axial strength P. Soil weigh on foundation = 2. Taking spread foundation as an example, the following ULS requirements are. The design of pile is kept outside the scope of the study. Check that resisting moment exceeds the overturning moment by a suitable safety factor. Structure dead loads, reduced according to the requirements of ASCE 7 Chapter 2, can be used to resist shear wall overturning. Uniaxial Moment: 100 kNm. One and Two Way Slab Quantity. Therefore, it is necessary to study the influence degree of centrifugal force. On deep soft soil, foundations make up a high percentage of the total cost. For curved girder bridges, the existence of vehicle centrifugal force will increase the overturning moment and reduce the anti-overturning stability coefficient. Isolated Footing Design Page 1 of 42 Isolated Footing Design (IS 456-2000) Design For Isolated Footing 1 Design For Isolated Footing 2 Design For Isolated Footing 7 Design For Isolated Footing 8 Footing No. design of foundation. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE 7. Each column carries the service dead and live loads shown in the following figure. While every ef-fort has been made to insure its accuracy, this information should. Information we need to design foundation Expected height of flooding Freeboard requirements from local gov't. this SELECT-A BASE™ Lighting Foundation Selection Software reflects the Chance Division of Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. Conventional foundation design Obeying the capacity design principles (according to current Seismic Codes), the design overturning moment onto the foundation is calculated as M Fd ¼ M S þcM E (2) where M FD is the foundation moment capacity; M S and M E the moment because of non-seismic. Nationally Defined Parameters automatically. Example: Calculate Pole foundation size and Wind pressure on Pole for following Details. The Design of Profiles 7 E. Kennedy, R P et al. The “slab” moment, Ms, is the total overturning moment acting across the entire tank base cross section. Refer to Figure A. Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center College of. Types of Masonry Dams 4 C. It is time consuming to do all the stability and reinforcement design using in house tools. Foundation Geometry Width 1. You can input forces acted onto the column (eg. Hence to overcome these overturning moments a restoring moment/stabilizing moment is required to be produced, mostly by the self-weight of footing and overburden soil over the footing. If there is a surcharge, the weight of surcharge can also be considered. Concerning the calculation of plate on an elastic foundation, the certainty analysis method has been used, i. which is 4 ti below grade. 5 is required. 7 Check for soil bearing 32 4. The structure weight provided 92% of the antioverturning bending moment, with the foundation slab providing the remaining 8% (18. The existing un-reinforced concrete foundation shown here is only 8 inches deep and 12 inches wide. CE 402: Foundation Engineering Design Design of Eccentric Footing • Example(1): Make a complete design for a footing supporting a 30cm X 60cm column load of 120t at ground surface (G. Overturning Overturning is checked at the base of the footing at the extreme edge of the toe. 5 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 t : s α: g Düzce. u = factored moment load on embedment M. It is therefore to check if, with respect to each side of the polygon, the ratio between the stabilizing moment and the overturning moment Mstab/Mdestab. 3 kNm/m Design vertical dead load Mdead = Wdead lload = 269. 1 5 4 M N Q Cla y S u = 80kN/m 2 = = 18kN/m3 D= 1 5 m 3 m 5 6 m 1 2 , 0 0 0 M N Q De n s e S a n d = = 20kN/m3. There is Zero Overturning Moment at 115 MPH. Bending Moment Pressure P = 𝑃 𝑢 𝐴 _ _ _kN/m2 4. 2 Scope 6 1. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. Weight of each element of retaining. Foundation Engineering-I Design of Shallow Foundations - 56 - Note: F The vertical pressure s1 would include the pressure from the existing footing. Geotechnical Shallow Foundation Design. Acceptable factor of safety is between 1. Overturning sliding, and uplift stability checks are made when applicable, and resulting gross soil bearing pressures at the four (4) corners of the footing are calculated. Realistic combinations of loads need to be con-sidered. The design must sustain all loads within. The slab with haunch, also known as a downturned slab, works similarly to the moment-resisting foundation, and a rigorous design would result in the "haunch" of the size similar to the footing of the moment-resisting foundation. EXAMPLE 10 - SIGN STRUCTURE FOUNDATION DESIGN 7 2020 Bending Moment (in-kip) vs Depth (ft. General Deep Foundation Design Flow Chart for Drilled. design of foundation elements. overturning moment about base of foundation, caused by F vh loads, F f overturning moment about base of foundation, caused by wind loads, blast, or similar lateral loads, F l largest overturning moment about the pressed edge or cen-troid of the base, F ! resultant resisting moment, F ! exponent used to relate plate kp to mat ks, Q. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. Determine the forces acting on the wall. 1' Use 10’, the footing area is 50 ft. 115 Chapter 7 Structural design IntroductIon Structural design is the methodical investigation of the stability, strength and rigidity of structures. 5 Gw pn u B' h 2 = 0. The design shall take in account the effects on foundation and structure produced by the lateral earth pressure exerted on the underpinning. We're going to have a non-uniform bearing pressure. One is the check for an overturning moment and the other one is the check for sliding. Design of Raft Foundation. For prescriptive design of masonry foundation walls in typical residential applications, a designer or builder may use the International One- and Two-Family Dwelling Code (ICC, 1998) or the local residential building code. The design principles of gravity retaining walls are discussed below: 1. Soil weigh on foundation = 2. Brom's Overturning & Torsion Capacity of Short Single Shaft Aug. Chapter 8 Foundation Design 8. Therefore, it is necessary to study the influence degree of centrifugal force. the footing. Design begins with the selection of trail dimensions for a typical vertical cross section through the wall. The steel jacket type platform on a pile foundation is by far the most common kind of offshore structure and they exist worldwide. 230m Pedestal Reinforcement-. type of restoring moment acting on the core at that level. If cumulative overturning is not considered, the design may result in forces several times higher than the capacity of the lower wall, anchor bolts and foundation anchorage. Based on the current anti-overturning studies for other structures,this paper discussed the anti-overturning formula for narrow-base towers,which was derived with method of limit equilibrium analysis. which is 4 ti below grade. Footings Example 1—Design of a square spread footing of a seven-story building Design and detail a typical square spread footing of a six bay by five bay seven-story building, founded on stiff soil, supporting a 24 in. materials has to be performed in order to choose the best design. Alternatively, this information can be entered manually for each foundation design. Acceptable factor of safety is between 1. This configuration is able to resist lateral and overturning forces because of the bending moment and shear strength that is inherent in its members and the connecting joints. Design of Pile Cap Excel Sheet. The purpose of the footing. This work aims towards finding new and reusable cost-effective onshore foundation solutions. Reduction of Overturning Moment for Foundation Design K. Sach pazis Date 23/05/2013 Chk'd by - Date App'd by Date PASS - Resistance to sliding is greater than horizontal load in y direction Check stability against overturning in x direction Total overturning moment; M. key wall design moment overturning moment about toe of retaining wall portion channel; fecticious moment at ends of finite beam on elastic foundation (MBP -MB) resisting moment about toe of retaining wall portion of channel equivalent moment, moment about axis at the tension steel supplemental moment added to end of finite beam when. • Use overturning moment and tilt time histories to obtain rotational stiffness time histories • Identify maximum, minimum, and mean values for the foundation rotational stiffness • Identify bending and tilt values that correspond to the maximum, minimum, and mean. Structural Engineers, I need help analyzing a tower crane foundation! I've worked for a structural firm for about 5 months now and I'm very new to all of this. Check that resisting moment exceeds the overturning moment by a suitable safety factor. Choice of Locatton 12 B. According to ACI 318- 14 section 15. Common sense dictates that these forces cancel each other, and the footing experiences no net applied overturning moment from them. Toe moments are positive if they cause tension in the bottom of the footing. overturning moment about base of foundation, caused by F vh loads, F f overturning moment about base of foundation, caused by wind loads, blast, or similar lateral loads, F l largest overturning moment about the pressed edge or cen-troid of the base, F ! resultant resisting moment, F ! exponent used to relate plate kp to mat ks, Q. The calculation allows for the design of a single precast reinforced concrete unit. Here we can calculate Moment, Force, Lever Arm Length. Area = [W + Self weight of foundation(10% of W)] / qa. The purpose of the foundation bracket is to transfer the load from the foundation element to. Similarly, for stability in overturning, the resisting moment at the base of the footing due to passive resistance is added to the resisting moment due to the vertical loads, W, if you choose to include it. overturning moment by creating a built-in clamping force to keep the cap in place. What is the Process of Designing a Footing Foundation? Some of the common design checks performed in the design of a concrete footing: Overturning check is completed after finding overturning safety factor which is found by dividing the sum of resisting moments by the sum of overturning moment. Kirsten Morris, BSc, CEng, MICE, FIStructE is a structures design team leader at Mott MacDonald in Southampton. A cast-in-place concrete foundation with square section of 1. 4; Strength Checks. Retention, or retaining, walls provide a practical means to make a difficult slope manageable and hold up some amount of soil and vegetation while lending landscape interest. This concrete footing design calculator helps engineers design foundations for footings, combined footings, piles and more The software includes calculations for overturning, sliding, structural utility ratios (one way shear, two way shear, flexure X and flexure Y) and more - as per AS 3600 and ACI 318. (e) Anchorage. Stability against overturning and sliding shall be in accordance with Section 1605. My project manager dropped some drawings and tower crane information on my desk the other day and asked me to analyze and design its foundation. are made based on provision in IS code. Each side is 24" forming a triangle. Check that the resisting moment exceeds the overturning moment by a suitable safety factor. pdf), Text File (. Design of footings 315 qqEd Rd≤ where q Ed is the design bearing pressure on the ground (an action effect), and qRd is the corresponding design resistance. Similarly, for stability in overturning, the resisting moment at the base of the footing due to passive resistance is added to the resisting moment due to the vertical loads, W, if you choose to include it. The building has a 10 ft high basement. Soil Design of foundation Include: Loads coming on foundation W (DL, LL, etc. Kennedy, R P et al. For sliding, the resistance force was calculated to be approximately 5,000 lb/ft with a driving force of 3,500 lb/ft. Needless to say, this is not the size the proponents of this system hope for. 7 kNm/m Restoring moments Wall stem Mwall = wwall (ltoe + twall / 2) = 91. Expected velocity of water Any anticipated debris Expected erosion and scour at site Bracing requirements for all lateral loads However, must add overturning moment as. from the Toe. 5 for a factor of safety. square column. Therefore, length of footing (L) = Width of footing (B) Therefore area of footing required = = 1100/300 = 3. ” However, this section of the code does not address the following three items: 1. EurocodeApplied. ADOT Bridge Design Guidelines 10-3 10. DISCUSSION By using the design curves presented herein, and by foHowing the procedure discussed above, the design of a foundation for a sign. Area of footing required, A = 𝑤 𝑆𝐵𝐶 For square footing, Size of footing = 𝐴 For Rectangular footing, assume L LxB=A Provide L x B square footing, Total Area = _ _ _ _ _ m2 18. These are complex systems and all but the smallest retaining walls should be designed by a licensed engineer. This recommendation shows how to evaluate the energy absorption value given by plasticity of the uplifted bottom plate for unanchored tanks, as well as the Ds value of an anchored cylindrical steel-wall tank. Drilled shaft foundations are widely used in many civil engineering applications where deep foundations are required because they are relatively easy to construct and are suitable for resisting lateral, axial, and overturning moment loads. An overturning moment is quite literally the force that is attempting to overturn an object. Wall footing _ EXAMPLE 16. The Porto Alegre partnership aims to improve the quality and efficiency of public transportation through the implementation of a BRT system, adoption of cleaner fuels and. Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Foundation Design 14-28 Pile/Pier Foundations Passive resistance (see Figure 4. F The K in these equation is a lateral pressure coefficient of Ka =K= Kp. The various types of lateral forces acting are as follows, 1) wind loads, 2) seismic loads, 3) earthquake loads, etc. This moment, is calculated at the base of the tank shell with appropriate anchor fixings being supplied to secure the shell to the foundation. Foundation design sections (spread and pile foundation, section 5 & 6) of EC7-1 offer the greatest detail. The allowable soil pressure is 5000 psf. 52 along with the soil properties. The optimum point of prestress is a function of the resisting moment versus demand and factor of safety. 8 Reinforcement 33 ped Overturning moment at the base of the pedestal F u Max. The presumed allowable bearing pressure of the non-aggressive soil is 200 kN/m 2. load shall not exceed 2/3 of the resisting moment due to dead load only , unless the structure is anchored to resist the excess overturning moment ( Minimum factor of safety required is 1. Hence to overcome these overturning moments a restoring moment/stabilizing moment is required to be produced, mostly by the self-weight of footing and overburden soil over the footing. the retaining structure: overturning, sliding, and bearing stress. Summary of Bill of Quantities (Civil Works) Bar Bending Schedule. Multiple column footings were located directly adjacent to the existing building. ST2, Paper 1188, March 1957. The luminaire or fixture supplier may be consulted to determine 2. - Group ID - Length 1 1 1. Supported wall can be positioned centrally or eccentrically on the footing. Reduction of Overturning Moment for Foundation Design K. K NS Rotational stiffness when foundation slab is not heaved [Nm/rad] K ,dyn Rotational stiffness for small deformations (from 10-5 to 10-3) [Nm/rad] L Foundation length (inclusion, pile or stone column) [m] l o Transfer length [m] M Overturning moment applied on foundation slab [Nm] M i Maximum moment in pile head [Nm] M' = M xy - n. Practically this can be modeled as a group of children leaning against the top rail of a fence at the edge of a precipice. Dams in Ancient Times 2 B. Liquefaction Resistant Structures: A structure that possesses ductility, has the ability to accommodate large deformations, adjustable supports for correction of differential settlements, and having foundation design that can span soft spots can decrease the the amount of damage a structure may suffer in case of liquefaction (Committee on Earthquake Engineering, NRC, 1985). 7 kNm/m Restoring moments Wall stem Mwall = wwall (ltoe + twall / 2) = 91. Learn about our no-concrete helical light pole foundation technology. Low overturning moment resistance, prone to leaning; Chance Foundation Solutions is a proud member of the Hubbell family. 5 Organisation of this Module 7 2 SITE GEOTECHNICAL MODEL 8 2. overturning moment, and the maximum vertical displacement of the sloshing/impulsive fluid surface due to the ground acceleration of an earthquake. Pad footing analysis and design (BS8110-1:1997) Job Ref. Prandtl, has studied the problem of failure of an…. 2 Live Loads (L) 4. 2, structure interface, the reduction of foundation overturning from Section 12. DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR A FOOTING WITH INSIGNIFICANT TILT: OVERTURNING MOMENT 49,000 FT X KIPS VERTICAL LOAD 2,100 KIPS: Out Of Service, no hook load, a 100 MPH wind will result in an Overturning Moment well below the above Design Parameters. Pier Design. The "substructure" or "jacket" is fabricated from steel welded pipes and is pinned to the sea floor with steel piles, which are driven through piles guides on the outer members of the jacket. 24 Seismic Design of Multistorey Concrete Structures N21. foundation and embrace this flow with the structural members as indicated in the high-rise design in Fig. r key wall design moment = overturning moment about toe of retaining wall portion of channel; f5cticious moment at ends of finite beam on elastic foundation = (MBP - MB) E resisting moment about toe of retaining wall portion of channel = equivalent moment, moment about axis at the tension steel = supplemental moment added to end of finite beam. Lets say that each child pushin. 1 Selection of representative design parameters 9 3 FOUNDATION PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES. M (KNm) Bearing Pressure (KNm) A Width (mm) B Depth. Each piece is either part of the resisting moment or the overturning moment. Using the S V , L , and l l determined in Problem 15. Therefore, it is necessary to study the influence degree of centrifugal force. The traditional way to solve the construction problem uses a shallow foundation with a massive concrete volume or a piled foundation to resist the extreme overturning moment. Isolated footing design example with step by step procedure and isolated footing design excel sheet (spreadsheet) is also provided for easy and fast calculation. This additional moment is calculated as the product of the shear reaction for the respective Load Combination and the thickness of the footing. Chapter 17 covers foundation. W - weight of vessel. The footing can have a portion of their footing area that does not act in bearing. -- Current Specifications: 1989 ASD and 1999 LRFD. Each type of structure will require a foundation specifically engineered to account for the size of the job and the ground on which it’s built. POLEFDN is a spreadsheet program written in MS-Excel for the purpose of analysis of a pole foundation assuming the use of a rigid round pier which is assumed free (unrestrained) at the top and subjected to lateral and vertical loads. 259 kNm Restoring Moment = 159. Wall footing _ EXAMPLE 16. Design Verification Sequence. abacuslighting. The Foundation for Design Success. About Retaining Walls; Terminology 2. 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC), Section 1806. Download file - Download other useful tools! Follow our official Facebook page (@civilengineeringbible) and Twitter page (@CivilEngBible) and do not miss the best civil engineering tools and articles!. This verification is related to the Overturning EQU section from the Design Assumptions dialog. to Overturn the Tombstone overturning at A ≈5. 1 completes the analysis and design of shallow foundations for. = nominal moment strength M. The allowable soil pressure is 5000 psf. 618k/ft > Vu → Footing is ok against one way shear. Since one side of the footing is limited to 5', the length of footing is. Overturning of the structure is caused due to the lateral forces. 3 Intended audience 6 1. 12 kN If retaining wall is over turned, it will rotate around the point "A". bearing wall, founded on soil, and subject to loading that includes an overturning moment. footing by the Grand Any design of stacked walls should consider the area of the passive reaction wedge, which moment capacity. Learn about our no-concrete helical light pole foundation technology. EXAMPLE 10 - SIGN STRUCTURE FOUNDATION DESIGN 7 2020 Bending Moment (in-kip) vs Depth (ft. Signed and sealed engineering printouts are available for permit by selecting ‘Purchase Certified Copies’ below after all fields are filled out. Supported wall can be positioned centrally or eccentrically on the footing. (e) Anchorage. You design the isolated foundation with 60 % reduction of bending with the use of the option inside the RC Spread footing module. • The more severe condition occurs if for some reason the full dead load is not present. A cast-in-place concrete foundation with square section of 1. A dearth of information on the subject has caused some designers to resort to commercial computer pro-. DESIGN OF WIND TURBINE TOWER AND FOUNDATION SYSTEMS: OPTIMIZATION APPROACH by John Corbett Nicholson A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science degree in Civil and Environmental Engineering in the Graduate College of The University of Iowa May 2011 Thesis Supervisor: Professor Jasbir S. Q1(b) Calculate the soil pressure under the footing of the retaining wall of Q1(a). Soil weigh on foundation = 2. RAPID RETAIN – GEOTECHNICAL & STRUCTURAL EFFECTS ON CANTILEVER/RESTRAINED RETAINING WALLS – V4. FOUNDATION DESIGN 1. 4; Strength Checks. Section Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Sheet no. So using prescriptive methods:. Use 12" Dia. "Seismic design of reinforced concrete mat foundations: A guide for practicing engineers," NEHRP Seismic Design Technical Brief No. (D) The foundation shall withstand twice the overturning moment, if any, developed by the tensions in all the hoisting ropes passing over sheaves or drums on the foundation or beams. Supported wall can be positioned centrally or eccentrically. 7 meter height with 140mm diameter, Second part of Pole is 2. The factor of safety against overturning is defined as the resisting moment divided by the overturning moment, and the minimum value should be 1. Steel frame, timber frame or precast concrete framed structures will require holding-down bolts to be cast into the top of the pad or sockets to be formed. Taking spread foundation as an example, the following ULS requirements are. Realistic combinations of loads need to be con-sidered. The results show that the anti-overturning bending moment obtained from the formula is accord. Paul Lackey, P. Ms = the moment of the tensile force in the reinforcement about the centroid of the compressive force in the masonry Mser = service moment at the mid‐height of the panel, including P‐Delta effects Mu = factored moment n = modular ratio = Es/Em P = design axial load. Analysis of a Pole Foundation spreadsheet 5 March 2019 Off By The Engineering Community POLEFDN” is a spreadsheet program written in MS-Excel for the purpose of analysis of a pole foundation assuming the use of a rigid round pier which is assumed free (unrestrained) at the top and subjected to lateral and vertical loads. The footing. For anchorage design in low seismic zone (ACI 318-08 SDC Overturning Sliding To prevent overturning the restoring moment due to the vertical load must be greater than the overturning moment, thus Under this loading condition the bearing pressure is not. 2 kips = 19. The computation is based on the calculation of the rigid body equilibrium (EQU) of the infinitely rigid foundation (both flexurally and extensionally) compared to the rotation around the sides (edges) of the base polygon on the lean concrete. Keyword-suggest-tool. bearing wall, founded on soil, and subject to loading that includes an overturning moment. FOOTINGS is a spreadsheet program written in MS-Excel for the purpose of analysis of rigid rectangular spread footings with up to 8 total piers, and for either uniaxial or biaxial resultant eccentricities. "Design of Concrete Foundation Piers" - by Frank Randall Portland Cement Association (PCA) - Skokie, IL, May 1968 b. 0) against overturning. The self-weight of the building creates a resisting moment of 246,681.

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